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Medical education is related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician or additional training thereafter or training to become a Physician Assistant. Medical education and training varies considerably across the world. Various teaching methodologies have been utilized in medical education, which is an active area of educational research. Entry-level medical education programs are tertiary-level courses undertaken at a medical school. Depending on jurisdiction and university, these may be either undergraduate-entry (most of Europe, India, China), or graduate-entry programs (mainly Australia, Canada, United States). In general, initial training is taken at medical school. Traditionally initial medical education is divided between preclinical and clinical studies. The former consists of the basic sciences such as anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, pathology. The latter consists of teaching in the various areas of clinical medicine such as internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, general practice and surgery. However, medical programs are using systems-based curricula in which learning is integrated, and several institutions do this. In the United States, until quite recently, the requirements for the M.D. degree did not include even one course in human nutrition. Today, this omission has been rectified; at least to the extent that one such course is required. There has been a proliferation of programmes that combine medical training with research (D.O./Ph.D. or M.D./Ph.D.) or management programmes (D.O./MBA or M.D./ MBA), although this has been criticized because extended interruption to clinical study has been shown to have a detrimental effect on ultimate clinical knowledge. Postgraduate education Following completion of entry-level training, newly graduated doctors are often required to undertake a period of supervised practice before full registration is granted; this is most often of one-year duration and may be referred to as an "internship" or "provisional registration" or "residency". Further training in a particular field of medicine may be undertaken. In some jurisdictions, this is commenced immediately following completion of entry-level training, while other jurisdictions require junior doctors to undertake generalist (un-streamed) training for a number of years before commencing specialization. Education theory itself is becoming an integral part of postgraduate medical training. Formal qualifications in education are also becoming the norm for medical school educators, who are increasingly accountable for their students. Continuing medical education In most countries, continuing medical education (CME) courses are required for continued licensing. CME requirements vary by state and by country. In the USA, accreditation is overseen by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME). Physicians often attend dedicated lectures, grand rounds, conferences, and performance improvement activities in order to fulfill their requirements. Example of medical education systems At present, in the United Kingdom, a typical medicine course at university is 5 years or 4 years if the student already holds a degree. Among some institutions and for some students, it may be 6 years (including the selection of an intercalated BSc—taking one year—at some point after the pre-clinical studies). All programs culminate in the Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery degree (abbreviated MBChB, MBBS, MBBCh, BM, etc.). This is followed by 2 clinical foundation years afterward, namely F1 and F2, similar to internship training. Students register with the UK General Medical Council at the end of F1. At the end of F2, they may pursue further years of study. The system in Australia is very similar, with registration by the Australian Medical Council (AMC). In the US and Canada, a potential medical student must first complete an undergraduate degree in any subject before applying to a graduate medical school to pursue an (M.D. or D.O.) program. U.S. medical schools are almost all four-year programs. Some students opt for the research-focused D.O./ Ph.D. or M.D./Ph.D. dual degree program, which is usually completed in 7–10 years. There are certain courses that are pre-requisite for being accepted to medical school, such as general chemistry, organic chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology, English, labwork, etc. The specific requirements vary by school. In Australia, there are two pathways to a medical degree. Students can choose to take a five- or six-year undergraduate medical degree Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS or BMed) as a first tertiary degree directly after secondary school graduation, or first complete a bachelors degree (in general three years, usually in the medical sciences) and then apply for a four-year graduate entry Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) program.

MBBS
  • Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin: Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated in many ways, viz. MBBS, MBChB, MBBCh, MBBChir(Cantab), BMBCh(Oxon), BMBS, etc.), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom. The naming suggests that they are two separate undergraduate degrees; however, in practice, they are usually treated as one and conferred together, and may also be awarded at graduate-level medical schools. In countries that follow the tradition of the United States, the equivalent medical degree is awarded as Doctor of Medicine (MD), which is a professional doctorate. History and nature The degree is currently awarded in institutions in Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Botswana, China, Egypt, Fiji, Ghana, Guyana, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, Zambia and Zimbabwe.[2] Historically, Bachelor of Medicine was also the primary medical degree conferred by institutions in the United States and Canada, such as University of Pennsylvania, Harvard, University of Toronto, University of Maryland, and Columbia. Several early North American medical schools were (for the most part) founded by physicians and surgeons who had trained in England and Scotland. University medical education in England culminated with the Bachelor of Medicine qualification and in Scotland the Doctor of Medicine. In the mid-19th century the public bodies that regulated medical practice required practitioners in Scotland and England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. Throughout the 19th century, North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began conferring Doctor of Medicine rather than Bachelor of Medicine. The first institution to make such a switch was King's College (now Columbia University) in New York. In the countries that award bachelor's degrees in medicine, however, Doctor of Medicine denotes a holder of a higher doctorate and is reserved for medical practitioners who undertake research and submit a thesis in the field of medicine. Nevertheless, those holding Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery are usually referred to by the courtesy title of "Doctor" and use the prefix "Dr", whether or not they also hold a Ph.D. or DSc. In theory the right to the use of the title "Doctor" is conferred on the medical graduate when he or she is registered as a medical practitioner by the relevant professional body, not merely by the possession of the academic degrees. The reason is found in a parallel tradition for those who are post-graduate specialists in Surgery; on acceptance into a College of Surgeons, they stop styling themselves "Doctor" and revert to "Mister" (Mr), "Miss," "Muz" (Ms.) or "Missus" (Mrs). This curious situation, where an elevation in professional rank is signified by dropping the title of Doctor, came about because historically a "surgeon" was an ordinary worker, usually a barber, not trained in medicine but performing dissections and surgery under the direction of a gowned academic who was the actual "doctor". Despite their styling as two degrees, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery are usually conferred together. At some institutions, such as Oxford and Cambridge, it was possible to be awarded the degrees in different years.[citation needed] In many countries, the degrees are awarded after an undergraduate course lasting five or six years. For example, most Chinese universities eligible for the degrees provide undergraduate courses lasting six yearsIn some cases, a graduate in another discipline may subsequently enter a special graduate-entry medical course, reduced in duration to account for relevant material covered or learning skills acquired during the first degree. In some cases the old first-year courses (for six-year degrees) in the basic sciences of physics, chemistry and biology have been abolished: that standard has to be reached by school examinations before entry. However, in most countries a newly graduated Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery must spend a specified period in internship before they can obtain full registration as a licensed medical practitioner. Naming The names and abbreviations given to these degrees depend on the institution, awarding body or country, and vary widely. This is mostly for reasons of tradition rather than to indicate any difference between the relative levels of the degrees. They are considered equivalent. If the awarding body titles the degrees in Latin, the degrees are commonly named Medicinae Baccalaureus, Chirurgiae Baccalaureus, Medicinae Baccalaureus et Chirurgiae Baccalaureus, or Baccalaureus in Medicina et in Chirurgia, abbreviated as MB ChB, MB BCh or otherwise. If titled in English, they are named Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery, usually abbreviated as MB BS, and sometimes as BM BS, even though most MB BS-awarding institutions do not use Latin to name their degrees.
  • MD/MS

    An MD/MS Program is a tutor-based program in which students are trained by research professionals on modern innovations in the healthcare industry. The MD/MS degree is designed for people who intend to pursue clinical practice and want to develop their research skills in a related area of engineering. It is well suited for students who desire a better understanding of the types of technology they may employ as practicing physicians. The MD/MS degree program provides a funded research experience in engineering that is expected to lead to research publishing. The program also provides practice in engineering design and analysis.The entire course is developed to be mentor-based, enabling the students to be coached by experts attached to a recommended medical center. Most of the courses take place online, via distance learning, leaving professionals free to study without leaving their jobs.

    Eligibility for the program:


    • Candidates who have appeared and cleared the DNB exams
    • Doctors with a post-graduate diploma/degree can study for the PG-up-gradation program

    Duration of MD MS program:

    Requirements for the combined MD and Masters degrees are equivalent to those of the separate degrees of the Doctor of Medicine of the School of Medicine and the specific Master of Science degree at a particular campus. The dual degree program can usually be completed within five to six years.

    Evaluation

    Evaluation of the course is assessed by the guide and university through thesis/dissertation submitted by the student based on their research project done. Examples of master degree programs Biomedical Informatics (BMI) applies statistical techniques and technologies to the medical and health sciences. Epidemiology involves the study of disease — and the predisposing conditions for disease — among human populations in all parts of the world, with an emphasis on approaches to improving levels of health. The MS Program in Epidemiology is presented by the Department of Health Research and Policy (HRP) at the School of Medicine. Health Services Research (HSR) is concerned with the analysis of health policy in the public and private sectors. The MS Program in HSR is part of the Department of Health Research and Policy (HRP) at the School of Medicine. Masters of Medicine (MOM) includes experience in clinical medicine with a view to foster translational research. Students who pursue the MS in Medicine while engaged in their doctoral programs will be highly knowledgeable about human biology and disease, and thus more able to translate scientific discoveries into useful medical advances. Masters of Human Genetics and Genetic Counseling is a program that trains students to understand the molecular, clinical and psychological implications of differences in the human genome, and to translate these intricacies to health care professionals, laboratory researchers and patients/families. Graduates of this program will be eligible for board certification by the American Board of Genetic Counselling.

    DM

    Medicinae Doctor, meaning "Teacher of Medicine", is a terminal degree for physicians and surgeons. In countries that follow the tradition of the United States, it is a first professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom, the title of the equivalent medical degree is instead styled as Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery. In those countries, the MD may either be a research doctorate (akin to the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)), an advanced clinical coursework degree (akin to the Master of Surgery), or an honorary or higher doctorate reserved for medical graduates.

    BDS

    Under the Dentist Act, 1948, the Dental Council of India is entitled with the responsibility for according recognition to the Dental Degrees awarded by the various Universities and also for maintaining uniform standards of dental education in the country. The Council inspects the various dental Institutions and brings the deficiencies observed to the notice of the authorities concerned for suitable remedial action The aim and objective of the Dental curriculum is to produce a Dentist who is socially acceptable and is able to work safely and effectively on patients in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental and oral diseases and to maintain uniformity in standards, technical and clinical requirements

    MDS

    MDS coordinators must generally be licensed practical nurses (LPNs) or registered nurses (RNs). The American Association of Nurse Assessment Coordinators (AANAC) offers training and certification in MDS (www.aanac.org). Individuals interested in acquiring certification must successfully complete the AANACs MDS 3.0 RAC-CT training program, which is composed of several courses tailored toward the Residential Assessment Instrument (RAI)/MDS process. The AANAC offers the courses through various formats - including workshops, online, and print - to offer enrollees the flexibility and ability to choose courses based on their unique learning styles. Once completed, graduates are prepared to create care assessments and treatment determinations in conformity with privacy standards and typical treatment standards.